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I Decision-Making Process

The formal decision-making process in Ontario is centred on the Executive Council, commonly known as the Cabinet. The Cabinet committee system provides a political structure and process for managing the numerous and complex decisions requiring Cabinet approval.

Cabinet committees may be established by legislation or at the direction of the Premier or Cabinet. Existing Cabinet committees are:

- Policy and Priorities Board (7);*

- Management Board (7);

- Cabinet Committee on Legislation and Regulations (6/3);

- Cabinet Committee on Privatization (5);

- P&P Sub-Committee on Who Does What Implementation (8/2);

- P&P Sub-Committee on Policy Coordination (7/3);

- P&P Sub-Committee on Jobs and the Economy (8/2); and

- P&P Sub-Committee on Federal-Provincial Issues (9/2).

The statutory committees (i.e., Policy and Priorities Board and Management Board) consist exclusively of Cabinet Ministers, with membership limits imposed by legislation. The non-statutory committees consist primarily of Ministers, but may also include parliamentary assistants. Parliamentary assistants are playing an increased role within the decision-making process: they sit on the policy committees and may carry legislation in the Legislative Assembly. In accordance with the principle of collective responsibility, parliamentary assistants swear an oath of secrecy in order to foster frank and open ministerial deliberations. Appointments to Cabinet committees are made at the Premier's discretion, or, for statutory committees, through an Order in Council.

In addition to the membership of parliamentary assistants on Cabinet committees, the government caucus as a whole also participates in the decision-making process. There are weekly meetings of the caucus, during which caucus members review legislation before it is introduced in the Legislative Assembly. Cabinet has established several commissions composed of caucus members to examine specific issues and make recommendations to Cabinet. In addition, ministries may also consult the various caucus advisory committees whose mandates cover a wide range of ministerial issues. Finally, caucus retreats are invariably held in parallel to the Cabinet retreats, and occasionally, caucus members are invited to attend Cabinet retreats.

There are 130 members of the Legislative Assembly; 82 sit on the Government benches, of whom 23 are Ministers (including the Premier). Currently, 12 parliamentary assistants sit on the various non-statutory Cabinet committees.

1. Cabinet and Cabinet Committees

Cabinet is established under the Executive Council Act and consists of the Premier and Ministers, including Ministers without portfolios. It makes all key policy, financial, resource, and statutory decisions of government. The Secretary of the Cabinet and the Deputy Clerk are usually in attendance. Ministerial officials, however, are rarely invited to attend, unless a specific presentation is required.

Cabinet decisions are recorded in Cabinet minutes, which are approved and signed by the Secretary of the Cabinet, and then provided to Ministers and Deputy Ministers directly affected by the decision.

The Policy and Priorities Board is responsible for setting the government's strategic policy agenda and establishing the government's fiscal framework. As the primary Cabinet committee dealing with policy decisions, P&P reviews the majority of Cabinet submissions, as well as the reports of P&P sub-committees, and makes recommendations to Cabinet for final approval.

The Government has established a number of P&P sub-committees to provide advice on specific issue areas. The sub-committees review these issues in depth and, for those that are to proceed to Cabinet for decision, produce a report with recommendations that is first reviewed by the Policy and Priorities Board.

These sub-committees are not standing policy committees, but are time-limited and focused on specific sets of issues. Accordingly, the number and mandates of the sub-committees will vary over time as new priority areas and corresponding sub-committees emerge and existing sub-committees fulfil their mandates and are discontinued.

Membership of sub-committees include Ministers and parliamentary assistants. No prescribed limits on the number of members exist. Deputy Ministers generally attend and participate in discussions. Where scheduled items substantially involve a ministry whose Minister is a not sub-committee member, the Minister and Deputy Minister are generally invited to attend.

The Cabinet Committee on Legislation and Regulations (LRC) considers and makes recommendations to Cabinet on draft legislation, draft regulations, petitions to the Lieutenant Governor in Council, and certain Orders in Council. This committee is the forum for dealing with the majority of statutory decisions.

With respect to legislation, the Cabinet submission underpinning the draft bill is first reviewed by P&P and Cabinet. LRC then reviews the draft legislation to ensure that it reflects the Cabinet minute and is technically correct. In addition, LRC reviews the policy and implementation issues raised in the detailed drafting and not specifically addressed by the Cabinet minute, which tends to be written at a higher policy level.

Most regulations proceed directly to LRC for policy, implementation and technical review. Where they have substantive policy or financial/resource implications, they must first be reviewed by P&P or Management Board respectively. Regulations are developed by ministries working with the Office of Legislative Counsel, whose role includes verifying their legal appropriateness.

The Management Board of Cabinet is the committee that decides how the government runs its operations and manages the public service. Under its legislated mandate, the Board reviews and approves ministerial estimates, in conjunction with the annual business plan/allocation process, to be submitted to the Legislature. The Board is also responsible for approving all financial, human resource management and administrative management policies through directives and guidelines.

The Management Board also acts on behalf of the Government as employer on issues between the Government and its employees and their bargaining agents, which includes collective bargaining.

The Cabinet Committee on Privatization was established in August, 1996 to oversee the implementation of the Government's plans for considering the privatization of government-owned businesses as a means to ensure better service for less cost.

2. The Formal Policy Process

The formal policy process is comprised of five distinct stages:

Setting the Policy Agenda. Most policy issues are identified through periodic policy planning exercises, initially involving ministries and central agencies, and culminating in Cabinet's approval of a strategic policy agenda. The desired product and timing for items on the policy agenda are conveyed to ministries which are then accountable for producing the required Cabinet submission.

Policy Development. The responsible ministry develops the policy proposal in consultation with Cabinet Office and the Premier's Office, consulting with other ministries with an interest in the issue, and following the format and process for a Cabinet submission.

Policy Review. Cabinet Office schedules the item on the agenda of one of the Cabinet policy committees (P&P only, or a P&P sub-committee and then to P&P for policy review). A Minister signs the Cabinet submission. The ministry prepares a Cabinet committee presentation to accompany the Cabinet submission. The Minister or ministry representative presents highlights and a proposed course of action to the committee, which in turn makes recommendations to Cabinet for final approval.

Policy Approval. At Cabinet, the Premier and Ministers can express their views on an initiative fully and frankly in the process of finalizing the decision. Ministry officials are rarely invited to attend. Under the doctrine of collective responsibility, all decisions taken by Cabinet are supported by all Ministers. The convention of Cabinet confidentiality protects discussions in Cabinet from public disclosure, except where a public statement is expressly authorized.

Implementation Approvals. Approved policy items with financial or staffing implications return to the ministry for preparation of a Management Board submission for further financial and administrative review. Once approved by Management Board, the proposal proceeds to Cabinet for confirmation.

II Central Agencies

Central agencies coordinate and support the Cabinet decision-making system as well as policy, fiscal, and workforce planning. In Ontario, the three key central agencies are Cabinet Office, the Management Board Secretariat and the Ministry of Finance. The Premier's Office also serves as a central agency.

1. Premier's Office

The structure and functions of the Premier's Office, as well as its mandate, depend to a large degree on the wishes of the Premier. Composed of political staff members, the Premier's Office is headed by the Principal Secretary. In general, the Premier's Office provides political advice and serves as the primary liaison with Ministers' staff.

All matters pertaining to the constituency of the Premier are handled by the Premier's Office. The Premier seeks political advice from his Office, which includes advice pertaining to communications strategies in keeping with the objectives set out by the Premier.

2. Cabinet Office

Cabinet Office is headed by the Secretary of the Cabinet. The Secretary of the Cabinet is the most senior public servant in the public service of Ontario and has four fundamental responsibilities:

- as Clerk of the Executive Council, the Secretary of the Cabinet oversees the operation of the Cabinet decision-making system on behalf of the Premier, conveys Cabinet decisions to Ministers and Deputy Ministers and ensures that these decisions are implemented, and ensures that the agenda of Cabinet and its committees supports the government's priorities;

- as the Premier's Deputy Minister, the Secretary of the Cabinet provides advice and support to the Premier on a full range of matters, and oversees the performance of each Deputy Minister on behalf of the Premier;

- as head of the public service of Ontario, the Secretary of the Cabinet ensures effective and efficient management, operation and organization of the public service, and implements longer-term strategies with respect to the future shape and mandate of the public service; and finally; and

- as Deputy Minister of Cabinet Office, the Secretary of the Cabinet is accountable to the Premier for the delivery of Cabinet Office's mandate.

As the Premier's ministry, Cabinet Office provides advice and critical analysis to the Premier in support of his role as President of the Executive Council of Ontario. In fulfilling its mandate, Cabinet Office manages the decision-making structures of the Ontario government, ensuring that they are effective, efficient and well-organized. Cabinet Office works with Cabinet and its policy committees to establish an agreed upon policy agenda and overall priorities. It is also responsible for providing administrative and secretariat support for Cabinet and its committees.

Cabinet Office supports the Secretary of the Cabinet in the exercise of her responsibilities as head of the public service by overseeing the general operation of the public service. The

Secretary of the Cabinet plays a pivotal role in shaping the future of the public service of Ontario, a fundamental component of her mandate. The Secretary of the Cabinet oversees the current reform of the public service.

a) Support for Cabinet and Cabinet Committees

For the most part, Cabinet Office is responsible for overseeing support to Cabinet and its committees. Managing the decision-making structures of the Ontario government, ensuring they are effective, efficient and well-organized, is a core business of the central agency. To this end, Cabinet Office plays a pivotal role in providing secretariat support, strategic agenda management, quality control over materials presented to committees, and planning Cabinet retreats.

Cabinet Office provides the full range of secretariat and administrative supports for Cabinet: setting the Cabinet meeting schedule, managing and preparing the Cabinet agenda, arranging meeting logistics, attending Cabinet, recording and distributing the Cabinet minutes. Similarly, Cabinet Office provides ongoing secretariat support to the Cabinet Committee on Legislation and Regulations, the Policy and Priorities Board and its sub-committees.

The Premier or Cabinet may from time to time wish to establish special Cabinet committees or working groups to focus government efforts on a priority area. Cabinet Office facilitates and coordinates these projects and provides ongoing secretariat support.

b) Policy Function of Cabinet Office

Given the heavy policy agenda of the Ontario government, and the constraints imposed by both the availability of committee time and the capacity of the legislature, Cabinet Office works closely with the Premier's Office on strategic agenda management to develop proposals for the Government's strategic policy priorities over the mid-term and to devise the legislative agenda (in consultation with the Government House Leader's Office). Cabinet Office and the Premier's Office review and prioritize agendas for the Cabinet and its committees based on these priorities and communicate the government's policy priorities to the ministries.

To ensure the quality of briefing and decision-making documents, Cabinet Office plays an important role by working with the ministries to ensure that a range of options and objective analysis is presented to Cabinet committees, and that interministerial consultation occurs prior to Cabinet review. Cabinet Office reviews draft Cabinet submissions, seeks direction from the Premier's Office and ensures that policy proposals reflect the approach and priorities of the government.

Cabinet Office policy staff provide the Premier with advice and critical analysis on policy issues as they move through the decision-making process by sharing information regularly with the Premier's Office about policy initiatives under development by ministries, related to communications issues and emerging critical issues. The policy staff brief the Premier on major issues prior to P&P meetings highlighting strategic issues, interministerial considerations and fiscal implications. The staff also prepares briefing notes for members of Cabinet committees that look at issues from a corporate or strategic perspective and provide a means to focus discussion on key decision points.

Cabinet Office liaises with its central agency counterparts (i.e., Management Board Secretariat and the Ministry of Finance) to ensure the government's strategic policy and legislative agenda is integrated with planning processes and with decisions dealing with fiscal and resource issues. Also, by working closely with line ministries, Cabinet Office can ensure that effective interministerial consultation takes place; where necessary, the Office can act as a mediator. Once a decision has been reached by Cabinet, Cabinet Office is responsible for communicating this decision to all affected ministries and for facilitating its implementation.

In addition, Cabinet Office liaises with the Government House Leader's Office to provide a link between the Government's policy-making and legislative processes in support of the development and implementation of a legislative agenda that balances the Government's priorities and available time in the House for legislation.

The coordination of linkages between Cabinet and the Lieutenant Governor represents another of Cabinet Office's areas of responsibilities. In this regard, the functions of Cabinet Office relate to the Lieutenant Governor's responsibilities for signing Orders in Council and Regulations recommended by Cabinet, receiving annual reports and authorizing legislative proclamations, and special events or activities such as the swearing-in ceremony for a new Government, the Speech from the Throne, signing the Order in Council and writs for by-elections and general elections.

c) Cabinet Office and the Premier's Office: Consultation Mechanisms

A close working relationship exists between Cabinet Office and the Premier's Office to ensure that the Premier receives a complete range of information and advice, and that the two offices provide consistent direction to ministries. Formal meetings are held weekly between officials from the Premier's Office and Cabinet Office in order to discuss agenda items for Cabinet and its committees, as well as policy issues of special interest to the government. Also, the two offices hold an annual session intended to coordinate the government's priorities for the coming year.

3. Ministry of Intergovernmental Affairs

The Policy and Priorities Board Sub-Committee on Federal-Provincial Relations serves as the key forum for reviewing policy relating to intergovernmental relations. The sub-committee meets on an as needed basis (e.g., prior to a First Ministers' Conference). Its mandate is to support a consistent and coherent strategic approach to federal-provincial issues and negotiations and make recommendations to Policy and Priorities Board on these matters.

The range of intergovernmental relations involve virtually every Ontario ministry with its federal counterpart, but the two key coordinating ministries are Intergovernmental Affairs and Finance.

The Ministry of Intergovernmental Affairs functions as a separate ministry and is not affiliated with Cabinet Office. Its Deputy Minister maintains the same reporting relationship to the Secretary of the Cabinet as deputies in other ministries.

The ministry has responsibility for developing corporate strategies, providing advice, and gathering information to help the government conduct Ontario's relations with the federal government and other provinces. More specifically, the ministry provides strategic policy advice to the Minister, the Premier and Cabinet on national unity, including advice on constitutional issues.

Ontario's participation in First Ministers' meetings, Annual Premiers' Conferences, and other major intergovernmental meetings is organized and coordinated by the Ministry of Intergovernmental Affairs. The ministry liaises with other provincial governments and the federal government, and monitors key policy files with respect to these governments' respective positions. Finally, the ministry works in close collaboration with other Ontario ministries in order to provide them with advice and assistance with respect to Ontario's intergovernmental policy objectives.

The Ministry of Finance also plays a key role in the management of Ontario's intergovernmental relations. In this capacity, the ministry oversees Ontario's financial relationship with the federal government and other provinces. It represents Ontario's interests at federal-provincial meetings and provides expert advice to Ontario ministries negotiating agreements with the federal government. More specifically, the ministry's functions in this regard include analysing the current federal fiscal policies, forecasting all federal transfers to Ontario, analysing other provinces' budgets and preparing fiscal comparisons between Ontario and the other provinces and the federal government.

4. Management Board Secretariat

The Management Board Secretariat (MBS) is responsible for managing the Ontario government's financial, human, physical and technological resources and assets. It provides strategic advice to support the decision-making of the Management Board of Cabinet. The Ontario Realty Corporation is housed within the Management Board Secretariat.

In fulfilling its mandate, the MBS provides administrative and secretariat support to the Management Board of Cabinet. It coordinates and monitors the annual business planning and allocations process across government, as well as the in-year and multi-year capital and operating expenditures, human resources, accommodation and information technology plans. The MBS provides the Management Board with advice on the financial, human resource, accommodation and information technology implications of proposals under review.

As the government's representative in its role as employer of the public service of Ontario, the Management Board Secretariat sets management policies, guidelines and accountability frameworks, and leads any major restructuring project undertaken by the government of the day. The MBS is also responsible for providing advice and assistance to ministries in a manner that promotes good financial practices across government. Mechanisms are put in place by the Management Board Secretariat to measure the Government's performance and to hold ministries accountable for meeting performance standards.

5. Ministry of Finance

In its role as a central agency, the Ministry of Finance provides the Minister of Finance, Cabinet and its Boards and committees with advice and assistance in setting and achieving the government's fiscal plan, taxation and economic policies. In fulfilling its mandate, the ministry establishes and implements tax policy, as well as undertakes the overall planning, monitoring and management of Ontario's fiscal plan (e.g., projected budget deficit, operating and capital expenditures and revenue). The ministry has responsibility for the preparation of the Budget and the multi-year expenditure and revenue forecasts. It develops and coordinates the major expenditure-reduction strategies required to meet fiscal targets.

In addition, the Ministry of Finance provides Cabinet and the government in general with analysis of strategic macro and micro economic, demographic, labour, sectoral and regional issues.

The Ministry of Finance also coordinates the Ontario government's efforts in identifying initiatives that could be better undertaken by the private sector, other levels of government or in partnership with other service providers. Within the ministry, the Privatization Commission provides support to implement the government's privatization efforts. It is made up of staff seconded from the public service and the private sector.

Among the Privatization Commission's central functions are its responsibility to provide administrative and secretariat support to the Cabinet Committee on Privatization, and to coordinate and manage the privatization review process. The Commission also provides advice on the policy, financial and resource implications of privatization candidates under review. More generally, the Commission coordinates the overall privatization strategy, and develops and articulates the government's privatization review objectives and criteria.

The Ministry of Finance includes the former Ministry of Revenue and Financial Institutions, as well as the Ontario Financial Authority.

6. Central Fiscal Management and Allocation of Resources

Ontario's annual fiscal and business planning cycle is a shared responsibility of the Ministry of Finance and Management Board Secretariat. The Ministry of Finance develops the Fiscal Plan, including an expenditure strategy that addresses key priority areas, the pressures and cost-drivers in the system as well as the province's revenue outlook and resulting deficit or surplus.

Management Board Secretariat runs the Business Planning and Allocations process, which is a comprehensive, integrated process of Cabinet level decision-making on ministerial strategic directions, core businesses, non-tax revenue, and operating and capital allowances.

The cycle begins when Cabinet and Policy and Priorities Board confirm the Government's strategic priorities both for the longer term and for the upcoming fiscal year. In early summer, the Ministry of Finance drafts proposals on fiscal strategies that reflect the economic environment and support the Government's strategic priorities. These are reviewed by P&P around mid-summer and are subsequently confirmed by Cabinet.

In the early fall, the Ministry of Finance develops options for a multi-year Fiscal Plan, and after successive rounds of refinement over several months, the Fiscal Plan is finalized. Preparations then begin for the Business Planning process: the Ministry of Finance prepares a government-wide non-tax revenue strategy for Cabinet consideration while the Management Board Secretariat prepares an allocations strategy for approval by the Management Board, returning to the Board within several weeks for approval of proposed preliminary allocations.

While ministries are provided with tentative spending levels called "preliminary allocations" for their capital and operating multi-year programs as early in the fall as possible, formal launch of the Business Planning process comes when Cabinet approves the recommended preliminary allocations in late fall or early winter. The Management Board Secretariat issues the business planning and allocations instructions for ministries, and ministries have approximately one month to update their Business Plans and detail how they intend to achieve their multi-year allocations and revenue targets.

Depending on the timing of the Cabinet approval of preliminary allocations, the Management Board Secretariat, with input from the other central agencies, begins its analysis of the revised ministerial Business Plans in late December or early January. Cabinet Office reviews associated policy and legislative issues in consultation with the Premier's Office, and the Ministry of Finance analyses and provides comments on fiscal and accrual accounting issues.

In late January or early February, the Management Board and Cabinet reviews and approves the Business Plans and Allocations for each ministry based on recommendations from the central agencies.

During this phase, the Ministry of Finance begins the Budget preparation process, including pre-Budget consultations, drafting Budget papers, speeches, legislation. Ministries begin preparing the Printed Estimates pro forma, based on Business Plans and Allocations approvals by the Management Board of Cabinet.

Following pre-budget consultations and Cabinet approval of ministerial spending plans, the Minister of Finance tables the annual Budget in the legislature. The Budget outlines the Government's fiscal and economic priorities for the upcoming year.

The Printed Estimates are tabled in the legislature 12 sessional days after the Budget is announced. Ministries prepare the Estimates Briefing Books which provide detailed explanations of proposed ministerial expenditures. The Estimates Briefing Books must be delivered to the Government House Leader within ten days after the tabling of the Printed Estimates.

The Standing Committee on Estimates analyses the business plans and allocations/estimates of selected ministries over the summer and fall, reporting to the legislature by the third week in November. The Concurrence Debate follows. The culmination of the allocations process is the passing of the Supply Act in the legislature which formally authorizes ministries to spend public funds.

In the meantime, ministries prepare for spring publication of their Business Plans, with guidance from Cabinet Office and the Management Board Secretariat. Consultations on the published Business Plans occurs during the summer months, and provides ministries with important feedback for consideration during next year's process.

The financial cycle begins again when Management Board Secretariat commences in-year monitoring of government-wide expenditures on April 1. This allows sufficient time to implement any necessary corrective actions to achieve the Fiscal Plan. Public reporting on the Government's achievement of its fiscal objectives is provided by the Ministry of Finance through quarterly reports, interim actuals provided in the Budget and Public Accounts published in September of the following year.

7. Civil Service Commission

The Civil Service Commission monitors the government's performance as an employer, especially with regard to preserving the merit principle and promoting corporate values.

Since the delegation of its human resource management functions to Management Board Secretariat, the Commission continues to operate as a tribunal. The tribunal carries out the regulation-making and adjudicative powers which, in law, cannot be delegated.

More specifically, the Commission sets regulations relating to a wide range of human resource management issues affecting salaries, classifications, recruitment, benefits and hours of work. The Commission approves appointments to and assignments within the public service, and more generally, considers a wide variety of staffing and recruiting actions.

The Civil Service Commission's members are salaried OPS civil servants at the Deputy Minister level. The Commission is chaired by the Secretary of Management Board of Cabinet.

Executive and leadership training is provided by the Centre for Leadership, housed within Cabinet Office. The Centre is also responsible for managing the performance review system.

a) Appointment to the Senior Levels of the Public Service

The Senior Management Group (SMG) is composed of three levels: the senior managers, the Directors and the Assistant Deputy Ministers. Deputy Ministers make up a distinct category.

Ministries first determine whether a vacancy can be filled by a senior manager within the ministry who is under surplus or job-threatened notice. If the vacancy cannot be filled in this way, the ministry must post the vacancy. For Director and ADM-level vacancies, the opportunity must be posted service-wide. For senior manager-level vacancies, the ministry retains authority to determine the area for posting the opportunity.

The Executive Development Committee (EDC) recommends, and the Civil Service Commission approves, all assignments at the ADM-level. The EDC is composed of seven Deputy Ministers serving on a rotational basis and headed by the Secretary of the Cabinet. Deputy Ministers have delegated authority for approving assignments at the senior manager and Director levels. In exceptional circumstances, the Executive Development Committee may exercise its discretion to directly place an SMG employee laterally into a position within a ministry or across the public service.

Deputy Ministers are appointed by the Lieutenant Governor in Council. Candidates are recommended to the Premier by the Secretary of the Cabinet.

b) Performance Evaluations

Performance management is a key component of the Human Resources Plan for Senior Managers. It provides a mechanism to link individual actions to corporate business plans. The program has been designed to strengthen the linkage of individual activities to the achievement of corporate and ministerial business plans and goals.

The members of the leadership group are held accountable, in their own performance agreements, for ensuring that performance management takes place. Performance management plans focus on improving organization processes and structure, as well as people's performance. And there is recognition, reward and consequences for performance and non-performance against established measures.

The performance management cycle is linked to the annual business planning cycle. Any adjustments made to the business plan would effect a corresponding adjustment to individual performance contracts.

The supervisor and the individual senior manager are jointly responsible for the annual formal review and assessment. Each ministry has the flexibility to design its own process around review and assessment, and determine the sources that may contribute to the formal review and assessment.

To manage the challenges ahead, it is critical that the public service has the ability to attract and retain private and public sector executives to assume leadership positions in the government. To achieve this objective, compensation levels must be competitive with comparable jobs in the large public sector organisations and reward public servants for performance based on results.

The Government of Ontario has also instituted the Incentive Award System which is based on corporate, ministerial and individual performance. Not only must the individuals meet or exceed key commitments outlined in their performance agreement, but the ministry must achieve a threshold of performance before the award program is funded. This threshold is determined annually by the Premier and Cabinet based on financial measures and policy priorities. The ministry's performance is measured against its achievement of key corporate objectives. The Secretary of the Cabinet, in consultation with the Premier, assesses the ministry's overall senior management performance in achieving its business plan. The sum of all individual awards must not exceed the ministry's incentive pool allocation. The Secretary of the Cabinet reviews and approves evaluations and distribution, by level, within each ministry.

* The first figure appearing in parentheses indicates the number of Cabinet Ministers who are members of the committee; the second figure indicates the number of parliamentary assistants, where appropriate.

Annex 1 - Cabinet Decision-Making System

Annex 2 - Overview of Policy Process

Annex 3 - Cabinet Office - Organizational Chart

[ Table of Contents ]