Federal/Provincial/Territorial (FPT) Agreements
One of the first Federal-Provincial agreements dates back to 1868. It dealt with immigration1, a constitutional power shared between the Parliament of Canada and the provincial legislatures. Federal-Provincial agreements (and more recently, Federal-Provincial/Territorial2 agreements) have since multiplied.
The increasing role of governments have required them to enter into agreements in relation to many activities, whether of federal, provincial or shared jurisdiction.
Today, FPT agreements constitute an important element of our federal governance. The following links to some of the many FPT agreements give an idea of the scope of Federal-Provincial/Territorial collaboration in Canada.
- Foreign Affairs: Francophonie, UNESCO, NAFTA Side Agreements (see Labour, 5th par.)
- Infrastructure (Agreements, Projects)
- Internal Trade (Labour Mobility)
- Land Claims (Aboriginal)
- Northern Development
- Official Languages Minorities (Education, Services)
- RCMP : Detachments Frontline Policing
For more information on FPT agreements:
- Government of Canada’s departments and agencies and those of provinces and territories
- The Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat
- Provincial and Territorial Intergovernmental Relations Departments/Offices
- Library and Archives Canada
- It provided, notably, that the Government of Canada would establish an immigration office in London, another on the Continent (Europe), as well as other offices where deemed necessary. It was also agreed that the provinces could appoint their own agents abroad where they deemed it necessary.
- There is a clear constitutional distinction between provinces and territories. While provinces exercise constitutional powers in their own right, the territories exercise delegated powers under the authority of the Parliament of Canada. Historically, this authority has meant that the North was largely governed by federal officials. However, over the past 40 years, major changes have occurred in the governance of the territories. Federal statutes have established a legislative assembly and executive council for each territory and province-like powers are increasingly being transferred or "devolved" to territorial governments by the Government of Canada. This process, known as "devolution", provides greater local decision-making and accountability.